Capital of Holy See
The capital city of Holy See is Vatican City with an area of only 44 hectares; Vatican City is the smallest independent state in the world, both by population and territory. Its borders are delimited by the walls and a strip of travertine that joins the two hemicicles of the Plaza San Pedro. In addition to its own territory, Vatican jurisdiction extends to other areas of Rome and beyond that enjoy the right to extraterritoriality.
The capital city of Holy See is Vatican City was constituted by the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and the Italian State, signed on February 11, 1929. This agreement established the personality of the Vatican as a sovereign entity of international public law, and its objective was to assure the Holy See, in its capacity as supreme institution of the Catholic Church, “the absolute and visible independence guaranteeing it an undisputed sovereignty also in the international field,” as stated in the preamble to the treaty.
Interesting Facts about Vatican City
The Catholic Church fulfills its evangelical mission through the various local and particular Churches and its central government, constituted by the Supreme Pontiff and by the Organisms that collaborate with him in the exercise of his responsibilities towards the universal Church Headquarters).
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The form of government is absolute monarchy. The Supreme Pontiff is the Head of State, with full legislative, executive and judicial powers: during the vacant seat the College of Cardinals exercises these powers. The legislative power is further exercised on behalf of the Supreme Pontiff by a Commission composed of a Cardinal President and other cardinals appointed for a five-year period. The executive power is exercised by the President of the Commission, and in this condition, assumes the name of President of the Governatorate, and is assisted by the Secretary General and by the Deputy Secretary-General. The Directorates and the Central Offices in which the Governatorate is organized, or the complex of organisms through which that power is exercised, depend on it.
The body of the Swiss Guard, responsible for the security of the Pope and the State, was founded in 1506 and its members wear a uniform which, according to tradition, was designed by Michelangelo. The Gendarmerie Corps is responsible for the police and security services of the State.