Capital City

Mexico City : Capital of Mexico

Capital City of Mexico:

The City of Mexico or Mexico City is the Federal District (abbreviated DF ), capital of the United Mexican States and the seat of the federal powers of the Union, constituting one of its 32 states. Commonly, in the rest of the country, this is called in abbreviated form Mexico or also Federal District , while abroad is often simply called Mexico City . [2] . Since January 30, 2016, the official name is Ciudad de México .

Mexico City is the political and economic center of the country. Its metropolitan area is the ninth most populated of the world, and the most populated of North America. Mexico City ranks eighth among the richest cities in the world, with a GDP of $ 315 billion estimated to double by 2020 , placing it seventh only behind Tokyo , New York , Chicago , Los Angeles , London and Paris .

Mexico City Capital of Mexico

According to the projections of the National Population Council (Conapo); For July 1, 2007 was estimated in the city a population of 8,193,899 inhabitants for the city, and 19,704,125 inhabitants for the entire Metropolitan Zone. The per capita income of the Federal District in 2008 amounted to 281,110 Mexican pesos, which was equivalent to nominal dollars in September 2008 to 25,258 dollars – a figure similar to that of countries such as the Czech Republic or South Korea .

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Interesting Facts about Mexico City:

History
Precolumbian era

The earliest evidence of human occupation in the territory of the Federal District Women are from the Rock and San Bartolo Atepehuacán, and for the Lower Cenolitic period ( 9500 – 7000 a n e… ). During the first three millennia before our era, under the influence or the shadow of the Olmec culture, several important populations were developed here like Cuicuilco. Towards the end of the Preclassic, the Cuicuilca hegemony yielded to the apogee of Teotihuacan , located to the northeast of the lake of Texcoco. During the Classic that city was a nucleus that concentrated to the majority of the inhabitants of the lacustrine basin, being Azcapotzalco like one of its satellites in the west bank, occupied by towns of Otomian descent. In the east of the lake,By the 8th century began the decline of Teotihuacan. Some of its inhabitants moved to the shores of the lake of Texcoco , where they founded towns like Culhuacán, Coyoacán and Copilco. The area was destiny of the migrations of the
Teochichimecas during centuries VIII and XIII, towns that would originate to the Toltec and Mexica cultures. The latter arrived in the 14th century to establish themselves first on the shore of the lake, and then on the islet of Mexico, where they founded their capital. Along with their allies, the Mexicas dominated a territory of about 300 000 square kilometers. The flowering of Tenochtitlan was interrupted due to the Spanish conquest .

Mexico City Capital of Mexico

Conquest

The Spaniards arrived at the territory that at the moment is the Federal District by Itztapalapan, in July of 1519 . They continued their route along the road from Itztapalapan to the Tenochca capital [12] where Hernán Cortés was received by Moctezuma Xocoyotzin on November 8, 1519. In 1520 Pedro de Alvarado (in Cortes’s absence) attacked the Mexicas in the Slaughter of Toxcatl. This fact was the point by which the Mexicas initiated hostilities against the European invaders.
The Spanish military Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico.During the conquest Hernán Cortés had as translator Malinche, who was the one who helps him in communicating with the Aztecs, about this character have created several legends. In substitution of Moctezuma -assessed by the Spaniards- Cuitláhuac was chosen tlatoani of Tenochtitlan. At the head of the resistance against the Spanish occupation, he defeated the invaders and their indigenous allies on June 30, 1520. At that time also a disastrous epidemic of smallpox took place, which claimed thousands of lives, including Cuitlahuac himself. Cuauhtemoc was chosen as the substitute for Cuitlahuac . This was to face the siege of Spaniards allied with the Indians of the valley of Puebla-Tlaxcala. Cuauhtémoc surrendered after multiple defeats of the Mexicas and Tlatelolcas.

Mexico City Capital of Mexico

Viceroyal age

Since the city of Tenochtitlan had remained in a pitiful state, Cortes decided to establish the Spanish Government in the town of Coyoacán, south of Lake Texcoco. From there he governed with the title of Captain General and Senior Justice. From Coyoacán began the expeditions of conquest with the purpose of subjecting the indigenous peoples of the different courses of what would be the viceroyalty of  New Spain . In 1528 the First Audiencia of Mexico was established, headed by Nuño de Guzmán. In 1535 the viceroyalty of New Spain was created, being its first viceroy, Antonio de Mendoza.Don Antonio Mendoza, first viceroy of New SpainMexico City was divided into neighborhoods that settled on the territorial structures of the Mexican calpullitin . The lands around the lake were divided into encomiendas, which later became municipalities. The pueblos of Indians were originally located on the shores of Spanish cities, although with the passage of time the boundaries became less clear and the Indians came to live in the Spanish towns, almost always for work reasons. At the same time that diverse political institutions were founded in the new Spanish dominions, also took place a process of acculturation of the natives. There was an intense campaign of Latinization of the Indians, headed first by the Franciscans, Which established institutions such as the College of the Holy Cross of Tlatelolco. In them, the indigenous nobles learned the Latin , the doctrine of the Catholic Church and numerous arts and crafts.Metropolitan Cathedral of Mexico City During colonial times, Mexico City was filled with sumptuous constructions, whether for religious worship, as buildings destined for administration, or as residences of the Creole and Peninsular elite. In contrast, the majority of the population, indigenous, lived in misery in the neighborhoods of the periphery and coastal or mountain peoples. While the center of the city was subject to constant beautification (such as the remodeling of the Zócalo , or the paving of streets, at the expense of the old canals); On the banks people lived in houses of bahareque seated on marshes.

The viceregal city was the victim of several floods (1555, 1580, 1607, 1629, 1707, 1714, 1806), as a result of the destruction of the dikes that protected it during the siege of Tenochtitlan, the largest of which was that of 1629. This fact led to the decision to dry the lake system of the basin, by means of the construction of a canal and a cut, to give outlet to the basin by the river Tula.In the cultural aspect it should be mentioned that in 1711 the opera La Parténope was premiered in Mexico City with music by Manuel de Sumaya, master of the cathedral chapel and the greatest Mexican baroque composer. The special importance of this opera is that it is the first composite in North America and the first opera composed on the continent by an American. This opera begins the fecund and still little studied history of Mexican operatic creation that has not been interrupted since then for three hundred years.

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